- Complex Signaling Networks Controlling Dynamic Molecular Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm
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Most Pseudomonas spp. This ability to thrive in harsh conditions is a result of their hardy cell walls that contain porins. Their resistance to most antibiotics is attributed to efflux pumps , which pump out some antibiotics before they are able to act. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen of clinical relevance. One of its most worrying characteristics is its low antibiotic susceptibility. Besides intrinsic resistance, P. Development of multidrug resistance by P. Hypermutation favours the selection of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance in P.
Some recent studies have shown phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony-variants, which may be important in the response of P. Although gallium has no natural function in biology, gallium ions interact with cellular processes in a manner similar to iron III. When gallium ions are mistakenly taken up in place of iron III by bacteria such as Pseudomonas , the ions interfere with respiration, and the bacteria die.
This happens because iron is redox-active, allowing the transfer of electrons during respiration, while gallium is redox-inactive. Infectious species include P.
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This pathogenesis may in part be due to the proteins secreted by P. The bacterium possesses a wide range of secretion systems , which export numerous proteins relevant to the pathogenesis of clinical strains. It exists as over 50 different pathovars , many of which demonstrate a high degree of host-plant specificity. Numerous other Pseudomonas species can act as plant pathogens, notably all of the other members of the P.
Although not strictly a plant pathogen, P. Since the mids, certain members of the genus Pseudomonas have been applied to cereal seeds or applied directly to soils as a way of preventing the growth or establishment of crop pathogens. This practice is generically referred to as biocontrol.
The biocontrol properties of P. Theories include: the bacteria might induce systemic resistance in the host plant, so it can better resist attack by a true pathogen; the bacteria might outcompete other pathogenic soil microbes, e. Experimental evidence supports all of these theories. Other notable Pseudomonas species with biocontrol properties include P.
Complex Signaling Networks Controlling Dynamic Molecular Changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm
Some members of the genus are able to metabolise chemical pollutants in the environment, and as a result, can be used for bioremediation. Notable species demonstrated as suitable for use as bioremediation agents include:. One way of identifying and categorizing multiple bacterial organisms in a sample is to use ribotyping. Food spoilage is detrimental to the food industry due to production of volatile compounds from organisms metabolizing the various nutrients found in the food product.
Recently, 16S rRNA sequence analysis redefined the taxonomy of many bacterial species previously classified as being in the genus Pseudomonas. The term 'pseudomonad' does not apply strictly to just the genus Pseudomonas , and can be used to also include previous members such as the genera Burkholderia and Ralstonia.
There are a number of bacteriophages that infect Pseudomonas , e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pseudomonas P. Main article: Pseudomonas infection. Int J Syst Bacteriol. Microbiology Society. Retrieved Brock Biology of Microorganisms 11th ed. Prentice Hall. Arb Bakteriol Inst Karlsruhe 1: — Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer.
Pseudomonas: Genomics and Molecular Biology 1st ed. Caister Academic Press. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. And transfer of seven species of the genus Pseudomonas homology group II to the new genus, with the type species Burkholderia cepacia Palleroni and Holmes comb. Microbiology and immunology. And Ralstonia eutropha Davis comb.
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Scientific Reports. Genome Diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Binnewies, David W. The core genomes of P. Variable segments are scattered throughout the genome of which about one third are immediately adjacent to tRNA or tmRNA genes. The individual islands differ in their repertoire of metabolic genes, but share a set of syntenic genes that confer their horizontal spread to other clones and species.
Colonization of atypical disease habitats predisposes to deletions, genome rearrangements and accumulation of loss-of-function mutations in the P. The P.
The genome is made up of clone-typical segments in core and accessory genome and of blocks in the core genome with unrestricted gene flow in the population. Di- to pentanucleotide usage and the list of the most abundant octa- to tetradecanucleotides are useful measures of the bacterial genomic signature. The Pseudomonas putida KT chromosome is characterized by strand symmetry and intra-strand parity of complementary oligonucleotides. Each tetranucleotide occurs with similar frequency on the two strands.
The regions with atypical oligonucleotide composition can be differentiated by their patterns of oligonucleotide usage into categories of horizontally acquired gene islands, multidomain genes or ancient regions such as genes for ribosomal proteins and RNAs. A species-specific extragenic palindromic sequence is the most common repeat in the genome that can be exploited for the typing of P.
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In the coding sequence of P. Genetic Tools for Pseudomonas. Kyoung-Hee Choi, Lily A. Karkhoff-Schweizer and Herbert P. Genetic tools are required to take full advantage of the wealth of information generated by genome sequencing efforts, and ensuing global gene and protein expression analyses.
Although the development of genetic tools has generally not kept up with the sequencing pace, substantial progress has been made in this arena. PCR- and recombination-based strategies allowed construction of whole genome expression and transposon insertion libraries. Similar strategies combined with improved transformation protocols facilitate high-throughput construction of deletion alleles and development of a broad-host-range mini-Tn7 chromosome integration system.
While to date most of these tools and methods have been developed for and applied in P. Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in the bacterial "lifestyle". They serve as a barrier between the cell wall and the environment, mediate host-pathogen interactions, and form structural components of biofilms. These polysaccharides are synthesized from nucleotide-activated precursors and, in most cases, all the enzymes necessary for biosynthesis, assembly and transport of the completed polymer are encoded by genes organized in dedicated clusters within the genome of the organism.
Lipopolysaccharide is one of the most important cell-surface polysaccharides, as it plays a key structural role in outer membrane integrity, as well as being an important mediator of host-pathogen interactions.