- Options to ensure the climate record from the NPOESS and GOES-R spacecraft : a workshop report
- Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft
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Speaking for the Land Variables Group, Dr. Kurtis Thome of NASA emphasized the importance of implementing high-accuracy calibrations for monitoring climate change, and suggested that establishing SI traceability in all measurement areas including pre-launch, onboard, and vicarious calibrations should be the primary strategy for effectively bridging data gaps.
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Thome noted that this effort should include the development of transfer standards that reduce the length of the calibration chain and lower final measurement uncertainties. Rice summarized the discussion of the Atmospheric Variables Group, which suggested mitigating data gaps by accessing data from other satellite sensors including non-US satellites or from targeted aircraft campaigns. The group also recommended better characterization of the atmosphere to improve upon the deficiencies in radiative-transfer models and increase the accuracy of aircraft campaigns.
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The discussion leader for the Clouds and Oceans Group, Dr. Microwave measurements of sea surface temperature made by satellites are currently verified through comparison with measurements by buoys in the sea or by aircraft over-flight. In both cases, the uncertainties are larger than the requirements for monitoring the long-term climate change. Critical climate variables identified by the three breakout groups as susceptible to data gaps. Based on the reports from each discussion group, a list of strategies for managing gaps in the climate data record was compiled and is provided below.
The strategies are grouped according to the kind of gap encountered. Data gaps can result from either a bias in the data acquisition due to different instruments or measurement methods or a disruption in data acquisition. Strategies for bridging a gap connect data across a gap for establishing trends, i. Strategies for mitigating a gap fill the gap using data acquired by alternative means to continuously provide critical information for people using satellite data. The overarching recommendation, endorsed by all three breakout groups, is that all calibrations and measurement procedures for spaceborne and aircraft sensors should be rigorously traceable to the SI.
Long-term monitoring of climate change will inevitably involve piecing together data from multiple sources.
Options to ensure the climate record from the NPOESS and GOES-R spacecraft : a workshop report
This process is made particularly robust when all measurements relevant to climate change are SI traceable to accepted physics-based, absolute scales. Such traceability is essential for bridging gaps across sensor bias variations, maintaining the integrity of the climate data record, and mitigating gaps due to lack of satellite data. The process of establishing SI traceability must begin in the sensor design phase and continue throughout pre-launch calibration and post-launch operation.
Pre-launch calibrations and onboard calibrations —All spaceborne and aircraft sensors should be required to undergo thorough SI traceable calibrations prior to launch and on orbit. Onboard calibration standards should be available for sensors to maintain SI traceable while on orbit. Celestial standards —High-resolution spectral calibrations of the Moon and stars, such as Vega, should be made to establish these celestial bodies as on-orbit, absolute reference standards for on-orbit characterization of instruments and could be used to determine any changes resulting from the launch of the instrument.
The calibration of sensors against these standards should be integrated into the operational procedures of the sensors, and instrument designs should accommodate the use of celestial targets. For example, spacecraft in low Earth orbit require the ability to turn to view the Moon through their nadir-viewing optics. Intercomparisons —Procedures should be established to enable intercomparison of sensors between satellites, both US and non-US. This is crucial for monitoring and correcting measurement biases in instruments, which often change as the sensors age.
GSICS promotes efforts to achieve the comparability of sensors on different satellites and to encourage pre-launch characterization and SI-traceable calibration. Ground-based vicarious calibrations —Ground sites should be further characterized to provide lowuncertainty, SI-traceable reference data for the calibration of space and aircraft sensors in the visible and reflected-solar infrared. Proper long-term maintenance of these ground sites should be considered. Airborne sensor campaigns —Airborne sensor campaigns are a good alternative for collecting data during failures or launch delays of satellites sensors.
The airborne sensors should be SI-traceable and calibrated in a manner consistent with their spaceborne counterparts. To improve the uncertainty of data from aircraft campaigns, there should be better characterization of the atmosphere to understand biases in radiative-transfer models. Airborne campaigns lack global coverage, but do provide reference data to aid data linkage across a gap. Agencies with capabilities to undertake airborne campaigns should ensure mission readiness if a data gap occurs and measurements are necessary to ensure climate data record continuity.
Non-US or other satellite assets —The community should leverage its involvement in GSICS to acquire data from non-US or other satellite assets in the event of the failure of a particular satellite or sensor. These assets should be SI-traceable and calibrated. Radiosondes measure the important atmospheric climate variables directly and can validate satellite observations. Effort should be made to improve the quality of these measurements and establish SI traceability.
Detecting the small signatures of climate change represents a formidable measurement challenge, requiring highly accurate and consistent measurements made over long periods of time. To minimize disruptions and maintain irrefutable climate records, participants at the workshop agreed that SI traceability in the remotesensing measurements for climate records is needed.
Various strategies to ensure SI traceability on orbit and mitigate data gaps were recommended, and the need to coordinate across agencies to implement strategies was emphasized. These are summarized below. NIST should develop SI-traceable standards for microwave sensors to include brightness temperature standards and antenna characterization standards. These standards should have uncertainties that meet the requirements for calibrating the microwave sensors at low enough uncertainty to detect the signatures of climate change.
The current lack of microwave standards hampers efforts to bridge data sets across a gap and ensure a continuous data set for monitoring climate change. NIST should continue its efforts to improve prelaunch calibrations for space and aircraft sensors and disseminate those calibrations to the aerospace industry. SIRCUS capabilities should be extended to longer wavelengths in the infrared as infrared laser technology advances. NIST should facilitate improvement of on-board calibration.
For instance, direct calibration of solar diffusers at NIST should be considered to shorten the measurement chain. NIST should develop new on-board standards, such as stable lasers and laser diodes for space deployment. In particular, future CERES-type sensors would benefit from a temporally, spectrally, and spatially stable, high-accuracy lamp standard at 0. NIST should implement the LUSI project to establish the Moon as an SI-traceable absolute radiometric standard to allow high accuracy radiometric calibration of sensors and long-term stability monitoring. This project should complement the NIST Stars program, which is developing a set of standard reference stars.
NIST should aid the development of multiple independent calibration methods for cross checking sensors in orbit. In this regard, NIST should be involved in the characterization and calibration of ground sites for vicarious calibrations.
About the authors: Catherine C. Following nearly a decade of instrument planning, spacecraft fabrication was contracted to Lockheed Martin Space Systems in ; construction of GOES began in and lasted until when the satellite entered the testing phase. The spacecraft reached an initial geostationary orbit several days later, beginning a yearlong non-operational checkout and validation phase. The satellite is expected to have an operational lifespan of ten years, with five additional years as a backup for successive GOES spacecraft.
Top priorities included continuous observation capabilities, the ability to observe weather phenomena at all spatial scales, and improved spatial and temporal resolution for both the imager and sounder. These specifications laid the conceptual foundations for the instruments that would eventually be included with GOES In September , the NOAA Research and Development Council endorsed the continued development of the instrument with the suggested bandwidths and frequencies. GOES-R and its sister satellites were to lead to substantial improvements in forecast accuracy and detail by providing new operational products for users.
The spacecraft has dimensions of 6.
Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft
GOES's command and data handling subsystem is based around the SpaceWire bus ; a modified version of the SpaceWire protocol was developed specifically for GOES as a cost and risk reduction measure, with the associated application-specific integrated circuit being developed by British Aerospace. Spacecraft stability and accuracy is maintained by several reaction wheels , gyrometers, and a star tracker.
These are positioned on a stable precision-pointed platform isolated from the rest of the spacecraft. The individual bands are optimized for various atmospheric phenomena, including cloud formation, atmospheric motion, convection , land surface temperature, ocean dynamics, flow of water, fire, smoke, volcanic ash plumes, aerosols and air quality , and vegetative health. The sensors on the ABI are made of different materials depending on the spectral band, with silicon used for sensors operating in visible light and mercury cadmium telluride used for sensors operated in the near-infrared and infrared.
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The ABI takes images with three different geographic extents,  with each image produced as a combination of stitched west-to-east narrow image scans made by the instrument. The sixteen spectral bands on the ABI, as opposed to the five on the previous GOES generation, represents a two-fold increase in spectral information. In addition, the ABI features up to four times greater spatial resolution and five times greater temporal resolution over the previous GOES imager. Unforeseen during the instrument design, GLM is able to detect Bolides in the atmosphere and thereby facilitates meteor sciences.
In monitoring irradiance, EXIS can detect solar flares which can disrupt power grids , communications, and navigational systems on Earth and satellites. Variability in irradiance influences conditions in the ionosphere and thermosphere. The goals of SUVI are to locate coronal holes , detect and locate solar flares, monitor changes that indicate coronal mass ejections , detect active regions beyond the Sun's east limb, and analyze the complexity of active regions on the sun. The GOES Magnetometer MAG is a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer that measures the Earth's magnetic field at the outer extents of the magnetosphere from geostationary orbit.
The tri-axial design allows for the measurement of the orthogonal vector components of the Earth's magnetic field. Following the rocket's first stage, additional burns in subsequent stages steered the spacecraft towards the altitude needed for geosynchronous orbit. Spacecraft separation from the launch vehicle occurred over Indonesia roughly 3. The spacecraft then initiated several burns using its own independent propulsion systems to refine its orbit to place it in the intended geostationary position, with eight days dedicated to increasing its orbital radius and four to orbital fine-tuning.
In addition to its primary science payload, GOES also features the Unique Payload Services UPS suite which provide communications relay services ancillary to the mission's primary operations: . Participants in the proving ground program were classified as developers—those developing the satellite algorithms and training materials for GOES-R products—or users—the recipients of those products.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First data released from GOES instruments.